DNA-V Scientific Publications

Evidence base for DNA-V and ACT for both youth and adults.

Table of Contents

Scientific support for ACT randomised controlled trials

Scientific support for ACT and DNA-V with adolescents

Armstrong, A. B., Morrison, K. L., & Twohig, M. P. (2013). A preliminary investigation of acceptance and commitment therapy for adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 27(2), 175–190.

Brown, F. J., & Hooper, S. (2009). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with a learning disabled young person experiencing anxious and obsessive thoughts. In Journal of intellectual disabilities: JOID: Vol. 13 (Issue 3, pp. 195–201).

Bryan, C. J., Yeager, D. S., Hinojosa, C. P., Chabot, A., Bergen, H., Kawamura, M., & Steubing, F. (2016). Harnessing adolescent values to motivate healthier eating. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(39), 10830–10835.

Ciarrochi, J., Atkins, P. W. B., Hayes, L. L., Sahdra, B. K., & Parker, P. (2016). Contextual Positive Psychology: Policy Recommendations for Implementing Positive Psychology into Schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(OCT), 1561.

Ciarrochi, J., & Hayes, L. (2016). Mindfulness-based social and emotional learning: a new approach to promoting positive development in young people. Scan: Online Journal for Educators, 35, 37–46.

Ciarrochi, J., & Hayes, L. (2018). Shaping DNA (Discoverer, Noticer, Advisor): A contextual behavioral science approach to youth intervention. In D. Wilson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Evolution and Contextual Behavioral Science: An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Predicting, and Influencing Human Behavior. New Harbinger.

Marino, F., Crimi, I., Carrozza, C., Failla, C., Sfrazzetto, S. T., Chilà, P., Bianco, M., Arnao, A. A., Tartarisco, G., Cavallaro, A., Ruta, L., Vagni, D., & Pioggia, G. (2019). A Novel Third Wave Contextual Approach of Positive Behavior Support in School for Adolescent at High Psychosocial Risk: Rationale, Feasibility, and First Pilot Outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02635

Faulkner, S., O’Dell, S. M., & Geisinger, D. (2018). Targeting Psychological Flexibility, Sleep Hygiene, and Physical Activity in High School Students using the DNA-V Model. Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989. 

Flujas-Contreras, J. M., & Gómez, I. (2018). Improving flexible parenting with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A case study. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 8, 29–35.

Fortuna, L. R., Porche, M. V., & Padilla, A. (2018). A treatment development study of a cognitive and mindfulness‐based therapy for adolescents with co‐occurring post‐traumatic stress and substance use disorder. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice: The Official Journal of Division 49, Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy of the American Psychological Association. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/papt.12143

Gillard, D., Hayes, L. L., McNally, A., & Willis, K. (2020, October 26). Forging brighter futures with young care leavers. British Psychological Society; The British Psychological Society. https://www.bps.org.uk/psychologist/forging-brighter-futures-young-care-leavers. https://www.bps.org.uk/psychologist/forging-brighter-futures-young-care-leavers 

Gillard, D., Flaxman, P., & Hooper, N. (2018). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Applications for Educational Psychologists within Schools. Educational Psychology in Practice, 34(3), 272–281.

Gould, E. R., Tarbox, J., & Coyne, L. (2018). Evaluating the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Training on the overt behavior of parents of children with autism. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 7(June), 81–88.

Hancock, K. M., Swain, J., Hainsworth, C. J., Dixon, A. L., Koo, S., & Munro, K. (2018). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children With Anxiety: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, 47(2), 296–311.

Hayes, L., Boyd, C. P., & Sewell, J. (2011). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Pilot Study in a Psychiatric Outpatient Setting. Mindfulness, 2(2), 86–94.

Hayes, L., & Ciarrochi, J. (n.d.). Growing up flexibly: DNA-v as a contextual behavioural science approach to working with young people. In Levin, M. E., Twohig, M. P., & Krafft, J. (Ed.), Recent Innovations in ACT. 2019.

Kemani, M. K., Kanstrup, M., & Jordan, A. (2018). Evaluation of an Intensive Interdisciplinary Pain Treatment Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adolescents With Chronic Pain and Their Parents: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 43(9), 981-994. https://academic.oup.com/jpepsy/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jpepsy/jsy031/4999073

Livheim, F. (2019). ACT treatment for youth – A contextual behavioral approach.

Livheim, F., Hayes, L., Ghaderi, A., Magnusdottir, T., Högfeldt, A., Rowse, J., Turner, S., Hayes, S. C., & Tengström, A. (2015). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for adolescent mental health: Swedish and Australian pilot outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 1016–1030.

Liu, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wu, M., & Zhu, Z. (2023). The effect of DNA-V model intervention on learning behaviors and stress in Chinese adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 30, 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2023.10.005

Lunsky, Y., Fung, K., Lake, J., Steel, L., & Bryce, K. (2018). Evaluation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mothers of Children and Youth with Autism SpectrumDisorder. Mindfulness, 9(4), 1110–1116.

Martin, S., Wolters, P. L., Toledo-Tamula, M. A., Schmitt, S. N., Baldwin, A., Starosta, A., Gillespie, A., & Widemann, B. (2016). Acceptance and commitment therapy in youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and chronic pain and their parents: A pilot study of feasibility and preliminary efficacy. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 170(6), 1462–1470.

Moyer, D. N., Page, A. R., McMakin, D. Q., Murrell, A. R., Lester, E. G., & Walker, H. A. (2018). The Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Positive Parenting Strategies Among Parents Who Have Experienced Relationship Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 33(4), 269–279.

Owen, K. L., Griffith, G. M., Gillard, D., & Grindle, C. F. (2023). “Children will leave school with these life skills, which I think is amazing”: an interview study exploring teachers’ experiences of implementing a health and wellbeing curriculum. Pastoral Care in Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643944.2023.2244506

Perry-Parrish, C., Copeland-Linder, N., Webb, L., & Sibinga, E. M. S. (2016). Mindfulness-Based Approaches for Children and Youth. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 46(6), 172–178.

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Dixon, A., & Bowman, J. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for children: A systematic review of intervention studies. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(2), 73–85.

Timko, C. A., Zucker, N. L., Herbert, J. D., Rodriguez, D., & Merwin, R. M. (2015). An open trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 69, 63–74.

Wersebe, H., Lieb, R., Meyer, A. H., Hofer, P., & Gloster, A. T. (2018). The link between stress, well-being, and psychological flexibility during an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy self-help intervention. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP, 18(1), 60–68.

Williams, K. E., Ciarrochi, J., & Heaven, P. C. L. (2012). Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(8), 1053–1066.

Woidneck, M. R., Morrison, K. L., & Twohig, M. P. (2014). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Among Adolescents. Behavior Modification, 38(4), 451–476.

Publications related to the specific processes targeted by DNA-V

Evidence for advisor/cognitive-focused interventions

Benefits of reducing unhelpful forms of cognition. Altering form or function of unhelpful beliefs/thoughts.

Butler, A. C., & Beck, A. T. (1995). Cognitive therapy for depression. The Clinical Psychologist, 48(3), 3–5.

David, D., Cristea, I., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Why Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is the Current Gold Standard of Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry / Frontiers Research Foundation, 9, 4.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). STRENGTHS OF CHARACTER AND WELL-BEING. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 603–619.

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 257–276). Oxford University Press.

Young, J. E. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Professional Resource Exchange.

Benefits of effective problem solving

Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2001). Problem Solving Therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 11(2), 187–205.

Disengaging from advisor/cognitive defusion

Levin, M. E., Hildebrandt, M. J., Lillis, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). The impact of treatment components suggested by the psychological flexibility model: a meta-analysis of laboratory-based component studies. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 741–756.

Evidence for Discoverer interventions

  • Benefits of mindfulness (Biegel et al., 2009)
  • Awareness and acceptance of sensory input (Kolk, 2006; Pollatos et al., 2008; Farb et al., 2013)
  • Skill at describing and labeling emotions (Gottman et al., 1996; Durlak et al., 2011; Kehoe et al., 2014)
  • Skill at responding to feelings in an adaptive and non-impulsive way (Neumann et al., 2010; Hayes et al., 2011).

Biegel, G. M. (2009). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. In K. W. Brown, S. L. Shapiro, & C. A. Schubert (Eds.), JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: Vol. 77  (Issue 5 , pp. 855–866).

D., D., & Hayes, J. (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research. Psychotherapy, 48, 198–208.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Dymnicki, A. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta‐analysis of school‐based universal interventions. The Child. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x

Farb, N. A. S., Segal, Z. V., & Anderson, A. K. (2013). Mindfulness meditation training alters cortical representations of interoceptive attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 15–26.

Gottman, J., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology: JFP: Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association , 10, 243–268.

Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2014). Tuning in to Teens : Improving Parent Emotion Socialization to Reduce Youth Internalizing Difficulties. 23(2), 413–431.

Neumann, A., van Lier, P. A. C., Gratz, K. L., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Assessment, 17(1), 138–149.

Pollatos, O., Kurz, A.-L., Albrecht, J., Schreder, T., Maria, A., Schöpf, V., Kopietz, R., Wiesmann, M., & Schandry, R. (2008). Reduced perception of bodily signals in anorexia nervosa. Eating Behaviors, 9, 381–388.

van der Kolk, B. A. (2006). Clinical implications of neuroscience research in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 277–293.

Low noticer skill associated with poor mental health, poor social support, addiction, and mortality

Heaven, P. C. L., Ciarrochi, J., & Hurrell, K. (2010). The distinctiveness and utility of a brief measure of alexithymia for adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 222–227.

Lindsay, J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2009). Substance abusers report being more alexithymic than others but do not show emotional processing deficits on a performance measure of alexithymia. Addiction Research & Theory, 17(3), 315–321.

Rowsell, H. C., Ciarrochi, J., Deane, F. P., & Heaven, P. C. L. (2016). Emotion identification skill and social support during adolescence: A three-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence: The Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 26(1), 115–125.

Evidence for Discoverer interventions

Broaden and build theory

Cohn, M. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). Beyond the Moment, Beyond the Self: Shared Ground between Selective Investment Theory and the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 17(1), 39–44.

Fredrickson, B. L., & Losada, M. F. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. The American Psychologist, 60(7), 678–686.

Adaptive expressions of openness to experience (Headey and Wearing, 1989; Davey et al., 2003) and curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2009)

Davey, M., Eaker, D. G., & Walters, L. H. (2003). Resilience Processes in Adolescents: Personality Profiles, Self-Worth, and Coping. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(4), 347–362.

Epstein, D. (2019). Range: How Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World. Macmillan.

Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987–998.

Low discoverer skill can be mapped to maladaptive forms of sensation seeking

Roberti, J. W. (2004). A review of behavioral and biological correlates of sensation seeking. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(3), 256–279.

Discoverer interventions involve functional assessment

Ramnerö, J., & Törneke, N. (2011). The ABCs of Human Behavior: Behavioral Principles for the Practicing Clinician. New Harbinger Publications.

Hurl, K., Wightman, J., Haynes, S. N., & Virues-Ortega, J. (2016). Does a pre-intervention functional assessment increase intervention effectiveness? A meta-analysis of within-subject interrupted time-series studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 71–84.

Evidence for Valuer interventions

There is substantial evidence for the benefits of environments that encourage valued-based actions, or what is termed “autonomy supportive environments.

Cheon, S. H., Reeve, J., & Ntoumanis, N. (2018). A needs-supportive intervention to help PE teachers enhance students’ prosocial behavior and diminish antisocial behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 74–88.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. Guilford Publications.

Value clarification and affirmation benefits health, education, and relationships

Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006). Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention. Science, 1307(2006), 1307–1310.

Cohen, G. L., & Sherman, D. K. (2014). The Psychology of Change: Self-Affirmation and Social Psychological Intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 333–371.

Creswell, J. D., Welch, W. T., Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mann, T. (2005). Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychological Science, 16(11), 846–851.

Páez-Blarrina, M., Luciano, C., Gutiérrez-Martínez, O., Valdivia, S., Rodríguez-Valverde, M., & Ortega, J. (2008). Coping with pain in the motivational context of values: comparison between an acceptance-based and a cognitive control–based protocol. Behavior Modification, 32(3), 403–422.

Sherman, D. K., Hartson, K. A., Binning, K. R., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Taborsky-Barba, S., Tomassetti, S., Nussbaum, A. D., & Cohen, G. L. (2013). Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(4), 591–618.

Motivational interviewing (MI) increases behavior change, adherence to goals, and positive affect. MI includes aspects of overt behavior (e.g. goal setting, etc).

Frost, Helen, Pauline Campbell, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan E. O’Carroll, Stephan U. Dombrowski, Brian Williams, Helen Cheyne, Emma Coles, and Alex Pollock. 2018. “Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Adult Behaviour Change in Health and Social Care Settings: A Systematic Review of Reviews.” PloS One 13 (10): e0204890.

Huffman, Jeff C., Emily H. Feig, Rachel A. Millstein, Melanie Freedman, Brian C. Healy, Wei-Jean Chung, Hermioni L. Amonoo, et al. 2019. “Usefulness of a Positive Psychology-Motivational Interviewing Intervention to Promote Positive Affect and Physical Activity After an Acute Coronary Syndrome.” The American Journal of Cardiology 123 (12): 1906–14.

Evidence for benefits of strengthening the self or self-view


Biber, D. D., & Ellis, R. (2019). The effect of self-compassion on the self-regulation of health behaviors: A systematic review. Journal of Health Psychology, 24(14), 2060–2071.

Breines, J. G., & Chen, S. (2012). Self-compassion increases self-improvement motivation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(9), 1133–1143.

Ferrari, M., Yap, K., Scott, N., Einstein, D. A., & Ciarrochi, J. (2018). Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood. PloS One, 13(2), e0192022.

Marshall, S. L., Parker, P. D., Ciarrochi, J., Sahdra, B., Jackson, C. J., & Heaven, P. C. L. (2015). Self-compassion protects against the negative effects of low self-esteem: A longitudinal study in a large adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 116–121.

Wilson, A. C., Mackintosh, K., Power, K., & Chan, S. W. Y. (2019). Effectiveness of Self-Compassion Related Therapies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 10(6), 979–995.

Flexible self-view: growth mindset, self-as-context

Burnette, Jeni L., Laura E. Knouse, Dylan T. Vavra, Ernest O’Boyle, and Milan A. Brooks. 2020. “Growth Mindsets and Psychological Distress: A Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Psychology Review 77 (April): 101816.

Sarrasin, Jérémie Blanchette, Lucian Nenciovici, Lorie-Marlène Brault Foisy, Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Martin Riopel, and Steve Masson. 2018. “Effects of Teaching the Concept of Neuroplasticity to Induce a Growth Mindset on Motivation, Achievement, and Brain Activity: A Meta-Analysis.” Trends in Neuroscience and Education 12 (July): 22–31.

Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets That Promote Resilience: When Students Believe That Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314.

Yu, L., Norton, S., & McCracken, L. M. (2017). Change in “Self-as-Context” (“Perspective-Taking”) Occurs in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for People With Chronic Pain and Is Associated With Improved Functioning. The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society, 18(6), 664–672.

Zettle, R. D., Gird, S. R., Webster, B. K., Carrasquillo-Richardson, N., Swails, J. A., & Burdsal, C. A. (2018). The Self-as-Context Scale: Development and preliminary psychometric properties. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 10, 64–74.

Evidence for benefits of strengthening social view

Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P. D., Sahdra, B. K., Kashdan, T. B., Kiuru, N., & Conigrave, J. (2017). When Empathy Matters: The Role of Sex and Empathy in Close Friendships. Journal of Personality, 85(4), 494–504.

Ciarrochi, J., Sahdra, B. K., Hawley, P. H., & Devine, E. K. (2019). The Upsides and Downsides of the Dark Side: A Longitudinal Study Into the Role of Prosocial and Antisocial Strategies in Close Friendship Formation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(FEB), 114. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00114/full

Sahdra, B., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P. D., Marshall, S., & Heaven, P. (2015). Empathy and nonattachment independently predict peer nominations of prosocial behavior of adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(MAR), 263.

Hall, H. K., Millear, P. M. R., Summers, M. J., & Isbel, B. (2021). Longitudinal research on perspective taking in adolescence: A systematic review. Adolescent Research Review, 6(2), 125–150.

Wolgast, A., Tandler, N., Harrison, L., & Umlauft, S. (2020). Adults’ Dispositional and Situational Perspective-Taking: a Systematic Review. Educational Psychology Review, 32(2), 353–389.

Mapping DNA-V and ACT to process-based therapy

Ciarrochi, J., Hayes, S. C., Oades, L. G., & Hofmann, S. G. (2021). Toward a Unified Framework for Positive Psychology Interventions: Evidence-Based Processes of Change in Coaching, Prevention, and Training. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 809362. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.809362/full

Evidence-based, positive psychology processes

Anglim, Jeromy, Sharon Horwood, Luke D. Smillie, Rosario J. Marrero, and Joshua K. Wood. 2020. “Predicting Psychological and Subjective Well-Being from Personality: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 146 (4): 279–323.

Armitage, Christopher J., Peter R. Harris, Gareth Hepton, and Lucy Napper. 2008. “Self-Affirmation Increases Acceptance of Health-Risk Information among UK Adult Smokers with Low Socioeconomic Status.” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 22 (1): 88–95.

Biber, David D., and Rebecca Ellis. 2019. “The Effect of Self-Compassion on the Self-Regulation of Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Health Psychology 24 (14): 2060–71.

Boggiss, Anna L., Nathan S. Consedine, Jennifer M. Brenton-Peters, Paul L. Hofman, and Anna S. Serlachius. 2020. “A Systematic Review of Gratitude Interventions: Effects on Physical Health and Health Behaviors.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 135 (August): 110165.

Borman, Geoffrey D., Jeffrey Grigg, and Paul Hanselman. 2016. “An Effort to Close Achievement Gaps at Scale Through Self-Affirmation.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 38 (1): 21–42.

Briki, Walid. 2017. “Passion, Trait Self-Control, and Wellbeing: Comparing Two Mediation Models Predicting Wellbeing.” Frontiers in Psychology 8 (May): 841.

Burnette, Jeni L., Laura E. Knouse, Dylan T. Vavra, Ernest O’Boyle, and Milan A. Brooks. 2020. “Growth Mindsets and Psychological Distress: A Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Psychology Review 77 (April): 101816.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Peter Leeson, and Patrick C. L. Heaven. 2009. “A Longitudinal Study into the Interplay between Problem Orientation and Adolescent Well-Being.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 56 (3): 441–49.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Philip Parker, Todd B. Kashdan, Patrick C. L. Heaven, and Emma Barkus. 2015. “Hope and Emotional Well-Being: A Six-Year Study to Distinguish Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.” The Journal of Positive Psychology 10 (6): 520–32.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Keong Yap, and Theresa Dicke. 2020. “The Role of Nonattachment in the Development of Adolescent Mental Health: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study.” Mindfulness 11 (9): 2131–39.

Colombo, Desirée, Jean-Baptiste Pavani, Javier Fernandez-Alvarez, Azucena Garcia-Palacios, and Cristina Botella. 2021. “Savoring the Present: The Reciprocal Influence between Positive Emotions and Positive Emotion Regulation in Everyday Life.” PloS One 16 (5): e0251561.

Cooper, David, Keong Yap, and Luisa Batalha. 2018. “Mindfulness-Based Interventions and Their Effects on Emotional Clarity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Affective Disorders 235 (August): 265–76.

Credé, Marcus. 2018. “What Shall We Do About Grit? A Critical Review of What We Know and What We Don’t Know.” Educational Researcher 47 (9): 606–11.

Cregg, David R., and Jennifer S. Cheavens. 2021. “Gratitude Interventions: Effective Self-Help? A Meta-Analysis of the Impact on Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety.” Journal of Happiness Studies 22 (1): 413–45.

Creswell, J. David, William T. Welch, Shelley E. Taylor, David K. Sherman, Tara L. Gruenewald, and Traci Mann. 2005. “Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses.” Psychological Science 16 (11): 846–51.

Dickens, Leah R. 2017. “Using Gratitude to Promote Positive Change: A Series of Meta-Analyses Investigating the Effectiveness of Gratitude Interventions.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 39 (4): 193–208.

Dimidjian, Sona, Steven D. Hollon, Keith S. Dobson, Karen B. Schmaling, Robert J. Kohlenberg, Michael E. Addis, Robert Gallop, et al. 2006. “Randomized Trial of Behavioral Activation , Cognitive Therapy , and Antidepressant Medication in the Acute Treatment of Adults With Major Depression.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 (4): 658–70.

Donald, James N., Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan, Geetanjali Basarkod, Joseph Ciarrochi, Jasper J. Duineveld, Jiesi Guo, and Baljinder K. Sahdra. 2020. “Mindfulness and Its Association With Varied Types of Motivation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Using Self-Determination Theory.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 46 (7): 1121–38.

Duckworth, Angela L., Christopher Peterson, Michael D. Matthews, and Dennis R. Kelly. 2007. “Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (6): 1087–1101.

Epton, Tracy, Sinead Currie, and Christopher J. Armitage. 2017. “Unique Effects of Setting Goals on Behavior Change: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 85 (12): 1182–98.

Ferrari, Madeleine, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, and Joseph Ciarrochi. 2018. “Self-Compassion Moderates the Perfectionism and Depression Link in Both Adolescence and Adulthood.” PloS One 13 (2): e0192022.

Fjorback, L. O., M. Arendt, E. Ornbøl, P. Fink, and H. Walach. 2011. “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124 (2): 102–19.

Franklin, Cynthia, Anao Zhang, Adam Froerer, and Shannon Johnson. 2017. “Solution Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Summary of Process Research.” Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 43 (1): 16–30.

Fredrickson, Barbara L. 2001. “The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.” The American Psychologist 56 (3): 218–26.

Frost, Helen, Pauline Campbell, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan E. O’Carroll, Stephan U. Dombrowski, Brian Williams, Helen Cheyne, Emma Coles, and Alex Pollock. 2018. “Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Adult Behaviour Change in Health and Social Care Settings: A Systematic Review of Reviews.” PloS One 13 (10): e0204890.

Gallagher, Matthew W., Laura J. Long, and Colleen A. Phillips. 2020. “Hope, Optimism, Self-Efficacy, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Protective Effects of Positive Expectancies.” Journal of Clinical Psychology 76 (3): 329–55.

Gander, F., R. T. Proyer, W. Ruch, and T. Wyss. 2013. “Strength-Based Positive Interventions: Further Evidence for Their Potential in Enhancing Well-Being and Alleviating Depression.” Journal of Happiness Studies. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10902-012-9380-0.pdf 

Heekerens, Johannes Bodo, and Michael Eid. 2021. “Inducing Positive Affect and Positive Future Expectations Using the Best-Possible-Self Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” The Journal of Positive Psychology 16 (3): 322–47.

Howell, Andrew J. 2017. “Self-Affirmation Theory and the Science of Well-Being.” Journal of Happiness Studies 18 (1): 293–311.

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